Python Listen For Sound

Post a comment. For more information, run python server. Infrastructure first: Because solving complex problems needs more than technology. Rick's Clip o' the Day - A UK man discovers a royal python in his toilet. Listen to and check out some of the most popular and well-known clips from. Ultrasound itself is sound with a frequency greater than 20 kHz which makes it inaudible for humans. AVSpeech is a new, large-scale audio-visual dataset comprising speech video clips with no interfering backgruond noises. io/en/latest $\endgroup$ – Libra Aug 26 at 19:18. The class includes written materials, lecture videos, and lots of code exercises to practice Python coding. 0 You’ll need to install the following * Python 2. Untapped. Microphone(). Python Crash Course For Beginners provides a comprehensive walk-through of Python programming in a clear, straightforward manner that even a beginner will appreciate. This setting is more critical and less flexible than the receiver's sample rate, and only a handful of rates can be expected to work. In honor of the classic comedy troupe's 50th anniversary, you'll soon get a chance to listen in on never-before-released audio from Monty Python. Press enter, and a bunch of setup text will run by. But in this example, something is happening: it looks like the audio is going directly to python, live. What is Gnaural? Gnaural is an opensource programmable auditory binaural-beat synthesizer, implementing the principle described in the October 1973 Scientific American article "Auditory Beats in the Brain" by Gerald Oster. They are extracted from open source Python projects. With PyAudio, you can easily use Python to play and record audio on a variety of platforms. Stack Exchange Network. In the end, I got so pissed off that I spent hours writing a Python script to convert the video podcasts into mp3 audio. I have not yet installed Python on the machine. Play the sound repeatedly. Being an important and relevant MIR task, research has been rampant in this area. The "Async Python Web Apps with WebSockets & gevent" talk I gave at San Francisco Python in January 2015 is a live-coded example Flask web app implementation that allows the audience to interact with WebSockets as I built out the application. Item can be returned within 14 days of receipt. Apart from the telegram. Download the file for your platform. Python for Everybody (Audio/PY4E) Dr. How to make actions within your custom state undo-able. I think the UA will help still. It supports listening to a multicast group. Audio/Video Instructional Materials for Python. Python by Riddle of Steel, released 01 June 2003 1. This software can be used along with the (patched) Osmo-TETRA software to monitor and listen to unencrypted TETRA communications. Google Text to Speech is one of the best TTS API out there, because it will generate audio as approximately similar to human voice while other APIs generate audio like a metallic voice or robotic voice. Similar projects are Twisted Words and jabber. 3+ (required) * PyAudio 0. Listen to Two bachelors and a python audiobook by Tanya Munshi. The official Python docs are exceedingly bad for regular people so it’s understandable why things are the way they are. Help your audience discover your sounds. It listens to audio signals and attempts to detect events. StudyBlue is the largest crowdsourced study library, with over 400 million flashcards, notes and study guides from students like you. MoviesMassive Movie Memorabilia Auction Will Include the Axe from The Shining and Monty Python's Holy Hand GrenadeBy Jim VorelSeptember 3, 2019; ComedyPreviously Unreleased Monty Python Audio to. Open source software is made better when users can easily contribute code and documentation to fix bugs and add features. 100% Open source Build it yourself with off-the-shelf hardware, and use our documentation to write your own modules. This setting is more critical and less flexible than the receiver's sample rate, and only a handful of rates can be expected to work. I think the UA will help still. The Rayzer 2-into-1 will give your bagger a look and sound that will turn heads. How to make actions within your custom state undo-able. uk/themes/Monty%20Python%20Theme. The SND_ASYNC flag must also be used to avoid blocking. Discover the best Python Programming in Best Sellers. Looking For A Job? Afraid Of Snakes? Florida Needs Python Hunters South Florida officials tell the Tampa Bay Times they're hiring 25 people to kill pythons in the Everglades. Here is what you will learn by listening to Python Programming for Beginners: When to use Python 2 and when to use Python 3. Speech engines with python tutorial Text To Speech (TTS) A computer system used to create artificial speech is called a speech synthesizer, and can be implemented in software or hardware products. Fire Is a Special Occasion 3. This has been a very popular topic since Raspberry Pi came out. Pyo contains classes for a wide variety of audio signal processing. Monty Python's Life of Brian, also known as Life of Brian, is a 1979 British comedy film starring and written by the comedy group Monty Python (Graham Chapman, John Cleese, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones and Michael Palin). We are running on Windows XP x86. 04 Lizenz: Creative Commons by-sa 3. UDP does not require a long-lived connection, so setting up a UDP socket is a little simpler. 6860 Followers. So here is a script you can use to play them in Windows Media Player which for some reason doesn't support them. With any Pro plan, get Spotlight to showcase the best of your music & audio at the top of your profile. Does anyone have a simple way of ripping the sound functionality our of PySol? I've not enough of a python programmer to deal with this. Forget the MSM's spin zone; get the truth!. Press enter, and a bunch of setup text will run by. We are impacting lives through missions with short-term, mid-term, and long-term opportunities. " Can you explain what was wrong with Python 3. There is a growing body of podcasts, screencasts and video presentations for the Python community. You can pick it up for just seven bucks at www. Python Sounds. 100% Open source Build it yourself with off-the-shelf hardware, and use our documentation to write your own modules. On April 7, 2017, residents in Dallas, Texas, woke to the sound of emergency sirens blaring all over the city. It support for several engines and APIs, online and offline e. Listen to and check out some of the most popular and well-known clips from. Open source software is made better when users can easily contribute code and documentation to fix bugs and add features. 1 which has tool validation. class BingSpeechAPI. Suppose it can work. 5mm jack speaker connected, you can play audio out of either one. I couldn't find a working example which didn't use the excellent Twisted library, and that seemed too heavyweight for my needs. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. Related Course: Zero to Deep Learning with Python and Keras. The Best Way to Learn Ruby on Rails Python is more popular than ever, and is being used everywhere from back-end web servers, to front-end game development, and everything in between. Program This program will record audio from your microphone, send it to the speech API and return a Python string. Sign in to review and manage your activity, including things you’ve searched for, websites you’ve visited, and videos you’ve watched. PyAudio provides Python bindings for PortAudio, the cross-platform audio I/O library. 4) The latest Icecast release can be downloaded below. I would expect any stable release of software to be "good and ready. If the sound parameter is None, any currently playing waveform sound is stopped. In this article, we will look at converting large or long. Similar projects are Twisted Words and jabber. Stream PYTHON by Woozi from desktop or your mobile device. By Giorgia Guglielmi Jul. Funny Videos, Pranks, Answering machine messages, pictures, signs, cartoons Funny Answering Machine Messages Here are some funny answering machine messages to download and record to your answering machine. " Are you running on Windows 2000/XP (pre-SP2)/Server 2003 with more than one network adapter? If so, the problem is Windows, not Python. Police in Newton are asking the surrounding public to be aware of a 6-8 foot snake that went missing from a nearby residence on Tuesday night. On Python 3, that library’s functionality is built into the Python standard library, which makes it unnecessary. What problems were those?. If you have been living under a rock, try listening to the audio file You either hear laurel or you hear yanny, and once you have heard the one, hearing the other is almost impossible. Here are the sounds that have been tagged with Python free from SoundBible. Here are some photos showing the rechargeable powered speaker I use for my Raspberry Pi command line audio tests : Share. Learn about the language and related technologies. DJ Python, Ciel contribute to Orphan. Python Lists. Concerts. In impeccable condition. Click here to report the issue. Now it is time to cover how to do this ourselves! The way this is done should sound fairly expectable, as you know the requirements of sockets. The Instant Monty Python CD Collection [Box set] [Audio CD] Monty Python. Guido van Rossum - Personal Home Page "Gawky and proud of it. He has an older brother, Nigel Jones (. Through pyAudioAnalysis you can: Extract audio features and representations (e. Insiders Club; Get My PERKS. The key is to set the socket non-blocking, and use the select module to wait until you can read from the socket. Stream the music you want and download your favorite songs to listen offline. Speech engines with python tutorial Text To Speech (TTS) A computer system used to create artificial speech is called a speech synthesizer, and can be implemented in software or hardware products. Being an important and relevant MIR task, research has been rampant in this area. I got the PyAudio package setup and was having some success with it. I have read over a dozen Python books and this remains my favorite. Quick Arcade Library Introduction Video. PyAudio is still super-duper alpha quality. If there is no active conversation, this is a no-op. SpeechRecognition is a library that helps in performing speech recognition in python. xmpppy is a Python library that is targeted to provide easy scripting with Jabber. In addition to that matplotlib. 04 Lizenz: Creative Commons by-sa 3. This site is maintained for those who want to continue to learn Python 2. There is also a decent Python module which supports Python 2, and Python 3 with a few tweaks. It is not a store. After you’ve ridden the digital wave of the future and ripped a number of MP3 files, you’re ready to enjoy them. Fantastic opportunity to own one of the finest power cables at any price. This library implements OSC version 1. Speaking into any of the microphones you've set up will display a bunch of lines of the following format:. There is also a video podcast of this material. In this tutorial we will create a robot. Sup family, So lately I been really taking my music seriously, if y’all could give me a listen that’d be dope!!! Here’s the only solo singles I got. 6860 Followers. 1 which has tool validation. I got the PyAudio package setup and was having some success with it. Sometimes, you need to look for patterns in data in a manner that you might not have initially considered. PyAudio is still super-duper alpha quality. Learn more about how to make Python better for everyone. Playing Internet radio streams with MPD/MPC (with a little bash and python) Posted on October 29, 2013 by Admin I wanted a way to easily import Internet radio streams into MPC, and then be able to easily change the station to the next one in the playlist. The GPIO pins on a Raspberry Pi are a great way to interface physical devices like buttons and LEDs with the little Linux processor. Program This program will record audio from your microphone, send it to the speech API and return a Python string. Funny audio clips from the classic Monty Python comedy spoof of the King Arthur legend. It support for several engines and APIs, online and offline e. DJ Python, Ciel contribute to Orphan. Connect the audio input of your soundcard via a 10k-100k serial resistor to the output of your receiver. Net Movies Tv Shows Sound Effects Video Games People Misc Request Store Links About this Site Twitter. I used netstat and lsof to find which daemons listening on some ports and found that python is listening on port 32769 although it is a loopback. 7 posts • Page 1 of 1. The following are code examples for showing how to use bluetooth. AudioQuest Python Speaker Cables I've had these cables for about 2 weeks now and they are still breaking in but the more I listen to them the better they sound. It is really self-explaining, you enter your desired notes and any optional parameters like bpm on the command line and after you hit return PySynth synthesizes the sound and plays it back via the speakers. Shunyata Python Alpha Power Snake red (6ft) ($650) This cable is in excellent condition with no marks or scuffs. So, after a bit of a read up on the pygame website, we came up with this short “building block” that we’re going to use to add sound to all our games now!. Luckily, the two people who spotted the massive python were members of the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's Python Action Team, and were able to capture the giant python. In this tutorial we will see how to perform voice recording through microphone for arbitrary time using PyAudio in Python. py on your machine. What is Gnaural? Gnaural is an opensource programmable auditory binaural-beat synthesizer, implementing the principle described in the October 1973 Scientific American article "Auditory Beats in the Brain" by Gerald Oster. It has built-in sound clips made by professionals in the music industry for users to mix and combine into novel musical compositions. To subscribe, simply provide us with your email address. Python provides an API called SpeechRecognition to allow us to convert audio into text for further processing. boss audio 1000w 4-speaker bluetooth sound system all utv's, atv's, golf carts (fits: joyner usa python 800) BOSS AUDIO SOUND SYSTEM. The Best Way to Learn Ruby on Rails Python is more popular than ever, and is being used everywhere from back-end web servers, to front-end game development, and everything in between. >>> Python Software Foundation. Listen to MP3 Files Online Using Google's Flash Player I checked Microsoft's recently launched file storage service and I was surprised to see there's no way to view your files online. The python had 73 developing eggs. The Unity Editor is a creative hub for 3D artists, 2D artists, designers and developers. 6, Microsoft Windows 7/XP, and Apple Mac OS X 10. I think the UA will help still. Hello, I'm new here ! My hobby is microcontrollers and now I'm doing a project where I could change the sound volume with buttons on my breadboard. If you are into movies you may have heard of Jarvis, an A. Text to Audio Conversion is a powerful way to speed up learning and lets you get more done in less time. Python Speech recognition forms an integral part of Artificial Intelligence. Following is the syntax for insert() method. Python Voice Command Calculator. PF_INET is mentioned. Apart from the telegram. Python Sounds. I'm using this gist to have the recorder set up/taken down. We will splice these sound samples in the following subsections. Pyo contains classes for a wide variety of audio signal processing. I have searched online and have only had success in finding programs that read from a wav file. This has been a very popular topic since Raspberry Pi came out. UDP does not require a long-lived connection, so setting up a UDP socket is a little simpler. This page tries to provide a starting point for those who want to work with audio in combination with Python. Python Voice Command Calculator. PTVS is a free & OSS add-in from Microsoft that turns VS into a Python IDE. What would Siri or Alexa be without it?. Pseudocode:. PyAudio provides Python bindings for PortAudio, the cross-platform audio I/O library. Then we can apply an audio classification approach to solve the problem. Brent Bell, VP of Recycling at Waste Management, on how China has stopped accepting our trash. With such an audio spectrum analyzer, you can measure for example the audio characteristic of your CW or SSB filter of your receiver. ” To spice things up, I’ve enlisted Ed Hardy, a. Monty Python. Explore the largest community of artists, bands, podcasters and creators of music & audio #174: Coming into Python from another Industry (part 2) by Talk Python To Me Podcast - Listen to music JavaScript is disabled. On Python 2, and only on Python 2, if you do not install the Monotonic for Python 2 library, some functions will run slower than they otherwise could (though everything will still work correctly). The scripts python_fm_mono records 10 seconds worth of SDR samples, and converts them into an audio file. Play notes, chords and arbitrary waveforms from Python. These are the audio lectures to supplement the textbook 'Python for Everybody: Exploring Information' and its associated web site www. Python Podcast newsletter is a comprehensive summary of the day's most important audio podcasts episodes from the best podcasters on the web, and delivered to your email inbox each morning. If you need a quick web server running and you don't want to mess with setting up apache or something similar, then Python can help. This guide is for for students in CS101 at Boston University and covers the Python, Jython, and JES features that you'll use in CS101. UDP does not require a long-lived connection, so setting up a UDP socket is a little simpler. The python's nest of up to 50 eggs was destroyed as well. By using TCP/IP controls (available in SoundCheck 15) Python can be used to interact with SoundCheck. In here you will find all sorts of sound effects, historical speeches, nature sounds, music, classic radio shows, video game quotes, movie and TV quotes, science quotes and more. py and listen. Here are some photos showing the rechargeable powered speaker I use for my Raspberry Pi command line audio tests : Share. Re: Shunyata Hydra 6 & Python Helix Alpha power cord combo Members: Log in to store this reply to your account for future reference, and to remove the Live User Verification test. The following are code examples for showing how to use bluetooth. Insects are tipped to rival sushi as fashionable food of the future and Monty Python are to mark 50th anniversary with record attempt, Tamsin Gatewood fills us in on all the details. This site is a resource, a community, and a forum. The scripts python_fm_mono records 10 seconds worth of SDR samples, and converts them into an audio file. Pseudocode:. Meet the scientist who turns data into music—and listen to the sound of a neutron star. py on your machine. Talk Python To Me podcast on demand - Talk Python to Me is a weekly podcast hosted by Michael Kennedy. The Python Audio Effects GUI (seen above) can be used to convert, visualize, process, and listen to single-channel audio files. Our goal is like this: If a user says “nine plus eight” the output will be like this: 9 + 8 17. El problema con la sociedad actualmente radica en que todos creen que tienen el derecho de tener una opinión, y que esa opinión sea validada por todos, cuando lo correcto es que todos tengan derecho a una opinión, siempre y cuando esa opinión pueda ser ignorada, cuestionada, e incluso ser sujeta a burla, particularmente cuando no tiene sentido alguno. mfccs, spectrogram, chromagram) Classify unknown sounds; Train, parameter tune and evaluate classifiers of audio segments; Detect audio events and exclude silence periods from long. GStreamer Conference 2019: Full Schedule, Talks Abstracts and Speakers Biographies now available: 2019-10-14 18:00: The GStreamer Conference team is pleased to announce that the full conference schedule including talk abstracts and speaker biographies is now available for this year's lineup of talks and speakers, covering again an exciting range of topics!. pygame is certainly an option, but it seems over. Type python polly. (such as recognizer_instance. One of Alpha-Core's design goals is lowering inductance to minimize high-frequency rolloff, and that characteristic was certainly evident (footnote 2). The Python interface is a straightforward transliteration of the Unix system call and library interface for sockets to Python's object-oriented style: the socket() function returns a socket object whose methods implement the various socket system calls. If you love the Shunyata Cobra, you will love this one, it is better in every way. The operating system employs time sharing to allocate a percentage of the CPU time to each process. Unfortunately there is not an immediate way of listening to the sound directly from python. HTTP Proxy. Rick's Clip o' the Day - A UK man discovers a royal python in his toilet. StudyBlue is the largest crowdsourced study library, with over 400 million flashcards, notes and study guides from students like you. The Unity Editor is a creative hub for 3D artists, 2D artists, designers and developers. Stream PYTHON by Woozi from desktop or your mobile device. That may sound overwhelming, but depending on which Python web framework you use, it doesn’t have to be as bad as it sounds. AudioFile(). This has been a very popular topic since Raspberry Pi came out. You can use the below mentioned lib of Python for your purpose: noisereduce Thanks!. I created a small Python script to produce this. Guayadeque Music Player is a free and open-source audio player written in C++ using the wxWidgets toolkit. The query for the assistant can be manipulated as per the user’s need. NOTE for Python 3 users: The code above has been written for Python 2 and I'm no more able to test RS232 connections with Python 3. Python Podcast newsletter is a comprehensive summary of the day's most important audio podcasts episodes from the best podcasters on the web, and delivered to your email inbox each morning. Doing this. Please try again later. Home Community Categories Python Python error " audio = sr. How get sound input from microphone in python, and process it on the fly? bin/python ## This is an example of a simple sound capture script. ‎This is the audio from the pre-recorded lectures for the book Python for Informatics: Exploring Information Listen on Apple Podcasts. pip install pyaudio Notes: pip will download the PyAudio source and build it for your system. Well, I'm curious about how it works. Everything I've tried has just generated a ton of errors. Its interpretation depends on the value of flags, which can be a bitwise ORed combination of the constants described below. Discover the best Python Programming in Best Sellers. socket-- builtin Python module. This site hosts packages and documentation uploaded by authors of packages on the Python Package Index. , Python debugger interfaces and more. Written by Keras creator and Google AI researcher François Chollet, this book builds your understanding through intuitive explanations and practical examples. WebSockets. For a more modern, cleaner, and more complete GUI-based viewer of realtime audio data (and the FFT frequency data), check out my Python Real-time Audio Frequency Monitor project. WATCH HERE Daredevil scientist screams in pain after letting six-foot python bite him A daredevil scientist could be heard screaming in pain […]. Developing a Python plugin. mfccs, spectrogram, chromagram) Classify unknown sounds; Train, parameter tune and evaluate classifiers of audio segments; Detect audio events and exclude silence periods from long. Machine Learning Section. The Server Socket Program here is a Python Console based Application. The object-oriented interface uses essentially two+two classes:. You can use the below mentioned lib of Python for your purpose: noisereduce Thanks!. The original code works for me on Windows 2000 (1 network adapter), but fails under XP Pro (pre-SP2, 3 adapters though 2 are. Speech recognition module for Python, supporting several engines and APIs, online and offline. Where TCP is a stream oriented protocol, ensuring that all of the data is transmitted in the right order, UDP is a message oriented protocol. The Python Audio Effects GUI (seen above) can be used to convert, visualize, process, and listen to single-channel audio files. This is commonly used in voice assistants like Alexa, Siri, etc. $\begingroup$ I think SimPy is the most common in the python world (at least, it is the one for which I can find the most examples), however, you can have a look at Salabim salabim. SpeechRecognition is a library that helps in performing speech recognition in python. Audioburst - Talk Python To Me "Is the topic I'm really excited to cover because it touches on these things that you can do to sort of take your career to the next level which is …. Here's a bare-bones process to listen for UDP broadcasts. The listen(x) function will be invoked once the audio intensity is above the set threshold. Quietnet is a chat program coded in Python that operates using near ultrasonic frequencies. Included Audio Data ¶ This GitHub repository includes many short audio excerpts for your convenience. Python Lists. Being an important and relevant MIR task, research has been rampant in this area. RMS meter with soundcard and software written in Python For the measurement of signal/noise ratios, you do need a RMS meter. One of such APIs is the Google Text to Speech API commonly known as the gTTS API. I wouldn't spend that kind of money on a cable to connect to a $300 PS Audio UO. The various ways to run a Python program on Windows, Mac, and Linux. This code works fine, records for 5 seconds, and then quits. The key is to set the socket non-blocking, and use the select module to wait until you can read from the socket. On Python 2, and only on Python 2, if you do not install the Monotonic for Python 2 library, some functions will run slower than they otherwise could (though everything will still work correctly). Google Cloud Speech API, Microsoft Bing Voice Recognition, IBM Speech to Text etc. 1 " , DJ Python, returns with the first masterful full length album "Dulce Compañia". Python-Programmierung - Listen-Index, Ubuntu 11. It is not a store. It can memorize recorded audio by listening to it once and fingerprinting it. pdf file that is written by the author of telive and. Sup family, So lately I been really taking my music seriously, if y’all could give me a listen that’d be dope!!! Here’s the only solo singles I got. Guido van Rossum - Personal Home Page "Gawky and proud of it. The ecosystem provides a lot of libraries and frameworks that facilitate high-performance computing. If a user says "nine divided three" the output. Officials at a South Florida wildlife preserve say they've captured the largest python ever found in the park. ReSpeaker Python API. I am hoping to have a python script that will listen for a serial command from the Arduino, and then change the. Attached is script that will open the Complete Test example sequence and return the JSON results. There are also built-in modules for some basic audio functionalities. To run this example: 1) Install Python. Do you know that most people think learning about Python and machine learning is hard? But it can be simple when you read/listen to a book that breaks down the whole thing! This step-by-step, easy-to-listen audiobook shows you and prepares you for a luxurious journey into the world of Python and machine learning. User Datagram Client and Server¶ The user datagram protocol (UDP) works differently from TCP/IP. The APIs made it possible. Learn more at: www. Screenshots included. A record breaking, 98-pound 18 foot long, python was spotted recently at Big Cypress National Preserve in Ochopee, Florida. The turtle module provides turtle graphics primitives, in both object-oriented and procedure-oriented ways. Forget the MSM's spin zone; get the truth!. argv, you will first have to import the sys module. Strengthen your understanding of Python—the popular object-oriented language—by tackling a series of hands-on projects. freiesmagazin. py in the console to convert your story file into an audio file. Listen on Apple Podcasts These are the audio lectures to supplement the textbook 'Python for Everybody: Exploring Information' and its associated web site www. Snake Sounds. Rhapsody is now Napster. (4 replies) Hi, For an application in an industrial environment where the workers are not always sitting in front of the monitor, but are within earshot of the PC I would need an sound / speech handler for the standard logging system. Similar projects are Twisted Words and jabber. GPIO that handles interfacing with the pins. Speech recognition, even though it is widely used (and is on our phones), still seems kind of sci-fi-ish to me. Five mini programming projects for the Python beginner. boss audio 1000w 4-speaker bluetooth sound system all utv's, atv's, golf carts (fits: joyner usa python 800) BOSS AUDIO SOUND SYSTEM. Pygame,Tkinter,Mutagen. Edit lyrics Print Lyrics Popular Right Now. There are also more robust ways to implement web services in Python, using modules like BaseHTTPServer. The Best Way to Learn Ruby on Rails Python is more popular than ever, and is being used everywhere from back-end web servers, to front-end game development, and everything in between. Can ship at buyers expense. Sup family, So lately I been really taking my music seriously, if y’all could give me a listen that’d be dope!!! Here’s the only solo singles I got. Provides methods to:. Julius [1] is a pretty good offline speech recognition engine. getframerate ¶ Returns sampling frequency. This method is called upon object collection. The audio spectrum analyzer program. Audio beat tracking is commonly defined as determining the time instances in an audio recording, where a human listener is likely to tap his/her foot to the music. Listen to Two bachelors and a python audiobook by Tanya Munshi. As we know Python is a suitable language for script writers and developers. Python state user interface events. It turns out that you can generate audio with nothing but the standard library of Python. Help your audience discover your sounds. Pygame,Tkinter,Mutagen. If you want to do voice chat, you can add another process and deal with the echo cancellation. This tutorial is based heavily on the telive_doc.